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You are here : Home / Citing Using Vancouver

Citing Using Vancouver

  1. Citing a book 

a. One author or editor

Howard A. Emergency management of acute poisoning. Pretoria: Van Schaik; 2006.

b. Two to six authors

Redman P, Maples W. Good essay writing: a social science guide. 4th ed. Los Angeles: Sage; 2011.

c. More than six authors or editors

Goering RV, Dockrell HM, Wakelin D, et al. Mim’s medical microbiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2008.

d. Chapter in a book

Wallace JR, Griffith DE. Antimycrobacterial agents. In: Krasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Braunwald E, Jameson JL, editors. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005; p.946.

e. Book compiled by a group, agency or committee (no author or editor)

Mosby Drug Consult. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 2007:II-539-II-540. 1

f. Citing an image in a book

Cowle C, Walker D. The art of apple branding. Hobart: Apples from Oz; 2005. 1

2. Citing a Conference Paper

a. Conference proceeding (whole conference)

Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002. 1

b. Conference paper

Anderson JC. Current status of chorion villus biopsy. Paper presented at: APSB 1986. Proceedings of the 4th Congress of the Australian Perinatal Society, Mothers and Babies; 1986 Sep 8-10; Queensland, Australian. Berlin: Springer; 1986. p. 182-191. 1

3. Citing Print Journals

a. Article
Hartfield P, Merrick A, Harrington K, Vile R, Batesman A, Selby P, et al. Radiation induced cell death and dendric cells: potential for cancer immunotherapy? Clin. Oncol. 2005;17(1):1-11.

b. Artcile (no author)
Anorexia nervosa. Br Med J. 1969;2(1):529-530.

c. Newspaper article (with or without author)
Pemba P. Sugar shortage looms. Weekend Nation 2012 Jan 21:3.

d. Newspaper article (no author)
Cameroon cocoa exports down. Weekend Nation 2012 Jan 21:9.

e. Press release
Watersmith C. BHP enters new era [press release]. Melbourne: BHP Limited; 2000 Mar 1. 1

4. Citing Electronic Journals 1

a. Full-text from an electronic database
Reid DB. Australasian Association of Doctors’ health advisory services. Med J Australia [serial online]. 2005 [cited 2006 Mar 28]; 182(5):255. Available from: Health and Medical Complete.

b. Full-text from an electronic database (no author)
Cell tropism of Salmonella enterica. Int J Med Microbiol [serial online]. 2004 [cited 2006 Mar 28]; 294(4):225-33. Available from: Health and Medical Complete.

c. Full-text newspaper, newswire or magazine from an electronic database (no author)
WA packed with overseas appeal. The West Australian [serial online] 2003 [cited 2004 Nov 13]; Nov 12: 47. Available from: Factiva.

d. Article from a CD-ROM (BPO)
La Rosa SM. Marketing slays the downsizing dragon. Information Today [serial on CD-ROM] 1992 [cited 2002 Oct 16]; 9(3):58-9. Available from: UMI Business Periodicals Online.

e. Cochrane Review
Iyer V, Fraquhar C. Jepson R. The effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills versus placebo or any other medical treatment for menorrhagia. [Cochrane Review] In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 1998. Oxford: Update Software.

5. Citing the World Wide Web

a. Document on the WWW
Department of Health. Creutzfeldt Jakob disease: Guidance for health care workers [homepage on the Internet]. c2003 [updated 2003 Mar 23; cited 2003 Nov 9]. Available from: http://www.doh.gov.uk/pdfs/cjdguidance.pdf1

b. Document on the WWW (no article title)
College of Medicine [homepage on the Internet]. Blantyre: College of Medicine; c2011 [updated 2011; cited 2012 Jan 12]. Available from: https://www.medcol.mw

c. Document on the WWW (no author)
Leafy seadragons and weedy seadragons [homepage on the Internet]. c2001 [updated 2001 Aug 1; cited 2004 Dec 10]. Available from: http://www.windspeed.net.au/~jenny/seadragons/ 1

d. Document on the WWW (no date)

McCook A. Pre-diabetic condition linked to memory loss [homepage on the Internet]. No date [cited 2003 Feb 7]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news_11531.html1

e. Image on the WWW
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority [image on the Internet] c2002 [updated 2006 Jan 28; cited 2006 Feb 15]. Available from: http://www.gbrm.gov.au/corp_site/infor_services/science/bleaching/ 1

6. Citing Government Publications

a. Acts of Parliament
Environmental Protection Act of 1986, WA [statute on the Internet]. c2002 [cited 2004 Dec 21]. Available from: State Law Publisher.

b. Cases
The State of New South Wales v. The Commonwealth (1915) 20 CLR 5.

c. Government Reports

Resource Assessment Commission. Forest and timber enquiry. Volume 1. Draft report. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service; 1991.

Children’s Institute, UCT. Child rights in focus. Annual report 2004/2005 [document on the Internent]. University of Cape Town; no date [cited 2009 Feb 21]. Available from: xxxxxx

d. Patent

Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

e. Online Standard

Standards Australia. Size clothing scheme for infants’ and children’s clothing – underwear and outwear [standard online]. c1997 [cited 2006 Feb 22]. Available from: Standards Australia Online.

7. Citing Secondary Sources 1

a. Book
In-text example: Higgins discusses Newman’s research in his work… [42]
Citation: Higgins D. Horizons: the poetics and theory of the intermedia. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press; 1984.
*Record the book that you actually used.

b. Journal article
In-text example: Clements qouted Chadler in his article… [43]
Citation: Clements C. The facts about cocaine (drugs). Science and Children [serial online]. 2007 [cited 2007 Apr 13]. Available from:ProQuest.
*Record the journal that you actually used.


8. Other sources 1

a. Personal communication, e-mail, discussion lists (no web archive)
These are not included in the reference list as they cannot be traced by the reader.

b. Citing unpublished work using numbered references
Give “(Unpublished)” at the end of a reference if the information is not readily available or obvious.

Matthews C, Van Rensburg A. Schierhout G, Coetzee N. The potential of syndromic management to improve the care of patients at an STD clinic in Cape Town. Medical Research Council and Department of Community Health, University of Cape Town; 1997 (Unpublished report).

Thapisa A. Co-operation with the University of Botswana. [Personal interview, 20 March] Cape Town; 1998 (Unpublished).

c. Films and video recordings
Scirsese M, producer; Lonergan K, director. You can countn on me [motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures; 2000.

d. Television and radio programmes
The medical profession in the 1990 [television broadcast]. The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. New York, Washington DC.: Public Broadcasting Service; 1993 Oct 11.

e. Podcast
The wings of a butterfly – children, teenagers and anxiety [podcast on the Internet]. Sydney: ABC Radio National; c2005 [updated 2005 Sep 10; cited 2005 Sep 16]. Available from: http://www.abc.net.au/podcast/defauly.htm#mind

Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson’s electronic atlas of haematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2002.

g. E-mail discussion list – web archive
Littlee L. Two new policy briefs. ECPOLICY [discussion list on the Internet]. 2002 Apr 16 [cited 2002 Nov 13]. Available from: http://askeric.org/Virtual_Listserv_Archives/ECPOLICY/2002/Apr_2002/Msg0003.html

h. Government publications
Australia. Commonwealth Department of Veterans’ Affairs and Defence. Australian Gulf War veterans’ health study 2003. Canberra: Commonwealth of Austalia; 2003.

i. Association / organization as author
Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertention, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension 2002;40(5):679-86.

j. Foreign / translated works
Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Mar 20;122(8):785-7.

k. Scientific / technical report
Lugg DJ. Physiological adaptation and health of an expedition in Antarctica: with comment on behavioural adaptation. Canberra: A.G.P.S.; 1977. Australian Government Department of Science, Antarctic Division. ANARE Scientific Reports. Series B(4), Medical Science No. 0126.

l. Unpublished dissertation / thesis

Mumba RS. Patients’ perception of health information given by nurses and clinicians at discharge at Chiradzulu District Hospital [unpublished dissertation]. Blantyre: College of Medicine; 2013.

m. In press
Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. In press 2002.


1. University of Queensland Library [Internet]. References/bibliography Vancouver style. No date [cited 2012 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/vancouv.pdf